Demographic dividend refers to the growth in an economy that is the result of a change in the age structure of a country’s population. The change in age structure is typically brought on by a decline in fertility and mortality rates.
India Demographic dividend:
- India has 62.5% of its population in the age group of 15-59 years which is ever increasing and will be at the peak around 2036 when it will reach approximately 65%.
- These population parameters indicate an availability of demographic dividend in India, which started in 2005-06 and will last till 2055-56.
- According to Economic Survey 2018-19, India’s Demographic Dividend will peak around 2041, when the share of working-age,i.e. 20-59 years, population is expected to hit 59%
Advantages of Demographics dividend:
- Better economic growth brought about by increased economic activities due to higher working age population and lower dependent population. It will be channelised in following ways:
- Increased Labour Force that enhances the productivity of the economy.
- Increased fiscal space created by the demographic dividend to divert resources from spending on children to investing in physical and human infrastructure.
- Rise in women’s workforce that naturally accompanies a decline in fertility, and which can be a new source of growth.
- Increase in savings rate, as the working age also happens to be the prime period for saving.
- A massive shift towards a middle-class society, that is, the rise of aspirational class.
- Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation because of higher number of employment seeking population that would force higher economic activities.
- Rise in workforce: With more than 65% of working age population, India will rise as an economic superpower, supplying more than half of Asia’s potential workforce over the coming decades.
Why Demographic dividend becomes demographic burden in India?
Even though the working population age group is high in Indian but lack of infrastructure, lack of employment, Covid -19 pandemic occur job loss, Factory are been shut down because of lockdown effect, informal business collapse because demonetization, formal business collapse because of vague structure of GST implementation in India, hotel industry collapse due to lockdown etc. Government policy may loss the advantage of demographic dividend in India. Now-a-day Youth are busy in Pubg, Whataap University, Web series etc and losing their productivity. Government look after to create jobs opportunity for youth in order to harness the demographic dividend of India.